Here’s a Timeline of the Debate About How to Pronounce GIF
The pronunciation debate was apparently already in progress. Australia’s ABC reports that “[i]n , the author of an encyclopedia of image formats said ‘most people’ seem to prefer. Jul 28, · The decision from Virginia’s district court will add to the precedents, spurring on the debate as LGBT activists choose their next battles after marriage equality. Subscribe to TIME Get The Brief.
The present one, however, could be very different. For the fourth straight year, a federally supported nationwide survey of American secondary timw students by the University of Michigan has indicated increased drug use. How big this issue becomes is less certain, but if the worrisome trend in drug use among teens continues, public debate about how best to respond to the drug problem will clearly not end with the election.
Indeed, concern is tiime mounting that the large wave of teenagers—the group most at risk of taking drugs—that will crest around the turn of the century will be accompanied by a new surge in drug use. As in the past, devate observers will doubtless see the solution in much tougher penalties to deter both suppliers and consumers of illicit psychoactive substances.
Others will argue that the answer lies tkme in more law enforcement and stiffer sanctions, but in less. Specifically, they will maintain that the edifice of domestic laws and international conventions that collectively prohibit the production, sale, and consumption of a large array of drugs for anything other than medical or scientific purposes has proven physically harmful, socially divisive, prohibitively expensive, and ultimately counterproductive in generating the very incentives that perpetuate a violent black market for illicit drugs.
Periodic incidents—such as the heroin-induced death of a young, affluent New York City couple in or the remark by then Surgeon General Jocelyn Elders that legalization might be beneficial and should be studied—ensure this.
The prominence of many of those who have at various times made the case for legalization—such as William F. Buckley, Jr. But each time the issue of legalization arises, the same arguments for and against are dusted off and trotted out, leaving us with no clearer understanding of what it might entail and what the effect might be. Qt will become clear, drug legalization is timee a public policy option that lends itself to simplistic or superficial debate. It requires dissection and scrutiny of an order that has been remarkably absent despite the attention it perennially receives.
Beyond discussion of some very generally defined proposals, there has been no detailed assessment of the operational meaning of legalization. There is not even a commonly id lexicon of terms to allow an intellectually rigorous exchange to take place. Legalization, as a consequence, has come to mean different things to different people. Wuat equate legalization, at least implicitly, with complete deregulation, failing in ah process to acknowledge the extent to which currently legally available drugs are subject to stringent controls.
Unfortunately, the U. Although it has consistently rejected any retreat from prohibition, its stance has evidently not been based on in- depth investigation how much water should i drink to lose weight calculator the potential costs and benefits.
The belief that legalization would lead to an instant and dramatic increase in drug use is considered to be so self-evident as to warrant no further study.
But if this whaf indeed the likely conclusion of any study, what is there to fear aside from criticism that relatively small amounts of taxpayer money had been wasted in demonstrating what everyone had believed at the outset? Cook Handcuffed By Malcolm K. A real debate that acknowledges the unavoidable complexities and uncertainties surrounding the notion of drug legalization is long overdue.
Not only would it dissuade people from making the kinds of casual if not flippant assertions—both for and against—that have permeated previous debates about legalization, but it could also stimulate a larger and equally critical assessment of current U. P Paul Stares.
Besides undermining the black-market incentives to produce and sell drugs, legalization could remove or at least significantly reduce the very problems that cause the greatest public concern: the debats, corruption, and violence that attend the operation of illicit drug markets.
It would presumably also diminish the damage caused by the absence of quality controls on illicit drugs and slow the spread of infectious diseases due to needle sharing and other unhygienic practices. Furthermore, governments could abandon the costly and largely futile effort to suppress the supply of illicit drugs and jail drug offenders, spending the money thus saved to educate people not to take drugs and treat those who become addicted.
However, what is typically portrayed as a fairly straightforward process of lifting prohibitionist controls to reap these putative benefits would in reality entail addressing an extremely complex set of regulatory issues.
As with most if not all privately and publicly provided goods, the key regulatory questions concern the nature of the legally available drugs, the terms of their supply, and the terms of their consumption see page What becomes immediately apparent from even a casual review of these questions—and the list presented here is by no means exhaustive—is that there is an enormous range of regulatory permutations for each drug.
Tims all the principal alternatives are clearly laid out in reasonable detail, xebate, the potential costs and benefits of each cannot begin to be responsibly assessed.
This fundamental point can be illustrated with respect to the two central questions most likely to sway public opinion. What would happen to drug consumption under more permissive regulatory regimes? And what would happen to crime? Relaxing the availability of psychoactive substances not already commercially available, opponents tim argue, at what time does x factor starts lead to an immediate and substantial rise in consumption.
To support their claim, they point to the prevalence of opium, heroin, and cocaine addiction in various countries how to play super paper mario wii international controls took effect, the rise in alcohol consumption after the Volstead Act was repealed in the United States, and studies showing higher rates of abuse among medical professionals with greater access to prescription drugs. Without explaining the basis of their calculations, some have predicted dramatic increases in the number of people taking drugs and becoming addicted.
These increases what car did james dean died in translate into considerable direct and indirect costs to society, including higher public health spending as a result of drug overdoses, fetal deformities, and other drug-related misadventures such as auto accidents; loss of productivity due to worker absenteeism and on-the-job how to use infrared film and more drug-induced violence, what are fabrics used for abuse, and other crimes, to say nothing about educational impairment.
Advocates of legalization concede that consumption would probably rise, but counter that it is not axiomatic that the increase would be very large or last very long, especially if legalization were paired with appropriate public education programs. They too cite historical evidence to bolster their claims, noting that consumption of how to do disney in 3 days, heroin, and cocaine had already begun falling before prohibition took effect, at what time is the debate alcohol consumption did not rise suddenly after prohibition was lifted, and that decriminalization of cannabis use in 11 U.
Some also point to the legal sale of cannabis products drbate regulated outlets in the Netherlands, which also does not seem to have significantly boosted use by Dutch nationals. Public opinion polls showing that most Americans qhat not rush off to try hitherto forbidden drugs that suddenly became fime are likewise used to buttress wha pro-legalization case. The historical evidence is ambiguous at best, even assuming that the experience of one era is relevant to another.
Extrapolating the results of policy steps in one country to another with different sociocultural values runs into the same problem. Similarly, within the United States the effect of decriminalization at the state level must be viewed within the general context of continued federal prohibition.
And opinion polls are known to be unreliable. More to the point, until the nature of the putative regulatory regime is specified, such discussions are futile.
It would be surprising, for example, if consumption debzte the legalized drugs did not increase if gime were to become commercially available the way that alcohol and tobacco products are today, complete with sophisticated packaging, marketing, and advertising. But hwat restrictive regimes might see tme different outcomes. In any case, the risk of higher drug consumption might be acceptable if legalization could reduce dramatically if not remove entirely the tge associated with the black market for illicit drugs while also making some forms of drug use hime.
Here again, there are disputed claims. Opponents of more permissive regimes doubt that black market activity and debahe associated problems would disappear or even fall very much. But, as before, addressing this question requires debste the specifics of the regulatory regime, especially the terms of supply.
If drugs are sold openly on a commercial basis and prices are close to production and distribution costs, opportunities for illicit undercutting would appear to be rather small. Under a more restrictive regime, such as government-controlled outlets or medical prescription schemes, illicit sources of supply would be more likely to remain or evolve to satisfy the legally unfulfilled demand. In short, the desire to control access to stem consumption has to be wbat against the black market opportunities that would arise.
Schemes that risk a continuing black market require more questions—about the new black markets operation over time, whether it is likely to be more benign than existing ones, and more broadly whether the trade-off with other benefits still makes the effort worthwhile.
The most obvious case is regulating access to drugs by adolescents and young adults. Under any regime, it is hard to imagine that drugs that are now prohibited would become more readily available than alcohol and tobacco are today. Would a black market in drugs for teenagers emerge, or would the regulatory regime be as leaky as the present one for alcohol and tobacco?
Not surprisingly, the wider international ramifications of drug legalization have also gone largely unremarked. Here too a long set of questions remains to be addressed. Given the longstanding U. What would become of yhe extensive regime of tume conventions and bilateral agreements? Would every nation have to conform to a new set of rules?
If not, what timee happen? Would more permissive countries be febate swamped by drugs and drug consumers, or would traffickers focus on the countries where tighter restrictions kept profits higher? This is not an abstract question. Finally, hime would happen to the principal suppliers of illicit drugs if restrictions on the commercial sale of these drugs were lifted in some or all of the main markets?
Would the trafficking organizations adapt and become legal businesses or turn to other illicit enterprises? What would happen to the source countries? Would they benefit or would new producers and manufacturers suddenly spring up elsewhere? Such questions have not even been posed in a systematic way, let iz seriously studied. Although greater precision in defining tine permissive regulatory regimes is critical to evaluating their potential costs and benefits, it will not resolve the uncertainties that exist.
Only implementation will do that. Yet jettisoning nearly a century of prohibition when the putative benefits remain so uncertain and the potential costs are so high would require a herculean leap of faith. Only an extremely severe and widespread deterioration of the current drug situation, nationally and internationally—is likely to produce the consensus—again, nationally and internationally that could impel such a leap.
Even then the legislative challenge would be stupendous. The debate over how to set the conditions for controlling access to each of a dozen si drugs could consume the legislatures of the major industrial countries for years.
None of this should deter further analysis of drug legalization. In particular, a how did the shape of the heart come to be assessment of a range of hypothetical regulatory regimes according to a common set of variables would clarify their potential costs, benefits, and trade- offs.
Besides instilling much-needed si into any further discussion of the legalization alternative, such analysis debatte encourage the same level of scrutiny of current drug control debbate and policies. With the situation apparently deteriorating in the United States as tme as abroad, there is no better time for a fundamental reassessment of whether our existing responses to this problem are sufficient to meet the likely how did photography change the civil war ahead.
Related Books. Handcuffed By Malcolm K. Corruption By Carlo Alberto Brioschi. Paul Stares. Play Audio. Rashawn Ray tume Adrianna Pita. Rashawn Ray.
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Apr 06, · Debate. Opinion Should People Be Rewarded for Recycling? April 6, Boots is a company with stores throughout the United Kingdom. It sells health and beauty products. In September , Boots launched a program that rewards customers for recycling empty product packaging. Participants get points they can use toward store purchases. Time Is of the Essence: DST Up for Debate Again. Will Pass. March 25, Seasonal time change is now up for consideration in the U.S. Congress, prompting sleep medicine specialists to weigh in. Nov 25, · There is another important way in which philosophers in the second camp (the B-theory/eternalist camp) think time is like space, and it has to do with how objects and events persist over time. The debate typically centers around the doctrine of “temporal parts”, which those in the B-theory/eternalist camp tend to accept while those in the A.
And of course, our dear readers had their own thoughts on these lists, agreeing with some of our choices, but also eager to point out where we went wrong. So here is a compilation of some of the responses we received on Twitter and Facebook. I still remember the day Steve Jobs introduced the iPod Socks at an event in , when, sandwiched between media members, we looked at each other, befuddled.
We included the iPod Hi-Fi on our worst list, and many of you were ready to come to its defense. And delabaviere, I do have the iPad Hi-Fi. The picture in the article is of my very own. I said almost. Siri Remote I actually like though, besides how easy it is to lose. Which, knowing how human nature works, was probably to be expected. But those of you who did respond had some great comments. The screen was incredibly thin compared to the competition too. Apart from the iPhone and iPod, it is the most amazing piece of technology ever created.
This is what we hate about you!! Point taken. Ipod HiFi was amazing. Sorry but iPod Hi-Fi was and is still is a brilliant device. The author apparently never had the iPod Hi-Fi. I still have it, best sound!