The muskox (Ovibos moschatus, in Latin "musky sheep-ox"), also spelled musk ox and musk-ox (in Inuktitut: ?????, umingmak; in Woods Cree: ????, mathi-mos, ??????, mathi-mostos), is a hoofed mammal of the family Bovidae. Native to the Arctic, it is noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted by males during the seasonal rut, from which its name derives. Oct 06, · The Arctic is the northernmost region of the Earth. Many Arctic animals even change their coloration seasonally. Species of Arctic fox and Arctic hare, for example, are snowy white in winter but molt and grow a brownish or greyish fur coat during the summer months. Even fluffy white baby seals will ultimately grow up to a dark brown—better to blend in with the dark Arctic ocean waters.
The Inuitare aboriginal people who make their homes in the Arctic and subarctic regions of Siberia and North America. Inuit describes the various groups of indigenous peoples who live throughout the Inuvialuit Settlement Region of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut of Northern CanadaNunavik in Quebec and Nunatsiavutthese areas are sometimes known as Inuit Nunangatand NunatuKavut in Labradoras well as in Greenland and parts of Alaska. The term culture of the Inuittherefore, thd primarily to these areas; however, parallels to other Eskimo groups can also be drawn.
The traditional lifestyle of the Inuit is adapted to extreme climatic conditions; caribuo essential skills for survival are hunting and trappingas well as the construction of fur clothing for survival. Agriculture was never possible in the millions of square kilometres of tundra and icy coasts from Siberia to Northern America including Greenland. Therefore, hunting became the core of the culture and cultural history of the Inuit.
They used harpoons, bows and arrowsand to take down animals of all sizes. Thus, the everyday life in modern Inuit settlements, established only some decades ago, still reflects the 5,year-long history of a hunting culture which allowed the Inuit peoples and their ancestors whah populate the Arctic.
Europeans in North America used to refer to the Inuit as Eskimos, but the people consider that term pejorative. The primary reason some people consider Eskimo derogatory is the essay on how to make our environment clean and green but widespread perception     that in Algonquian languages it means "eaters of raw meat. The word Inuit is the autonymthe name which the people use for themselves and it means "the people.
Archaeologists are certain that the predecessors of today's Inuit originated in the area of the Bering Straitwhich separates Asia and North America. The first Inuit group, known as Paleo-Eskimoscrossed the Strait in BCE presumably on winter ice, which was long after earlier migrations by the ancestors to the North American Indians. Archaeological finds have revealed that the Paleo-Eskimos moved to the northern Wuat Arctic in BCE, apparently because of a wgat in climate.
From there they gradually followed what eats a caribou in the tundra herds of game across the Arctic to Greenland, and dispersed into more distinct nomadic tribes. Pre-Dorset culture is said to begin when the Paleo-Eskimos settled on the islands of the Canadian archipelago and northern Greenland.
The descriptions "Dorset" and "Pre-Dorset" come from Cape Dorset on Baffin Islandthe source of an assemblage which in anthropologist Diamond Jenness identified as originating from a hitherto unknown " Dorset culture. Cariboou the central Canadian Arctic, they mainly hunted muskoxen and caribou with bow and arrow, and fished with barbed devices.
Groups living near the coastline hunted sealswalruses and smaller whales by throwing harpoons from the shore or from sea ice. This Paleo-Eskimo culture was named after Independence Fjordwhere traces of a ccaribou settlement were found.
Their lodgings were erected on elliptical foundations centred upon box-shaped hearths made of flat stones set on end. These they filled with driftwood, musk ox dung, and bones. They might have started fires with the help of utndra bow drill operated by sinews, which was in general use some centuries later. In the western and southern whwt of the eastern coast of Greenland, the Saqqaq culture developed around BCE and lasted years.
The centre of their settlements was Disko Bay near the place Saqqaqwhich lent its name to the culture. The people extended their culture along the fjords and coastlines in the area. The culture of the Saqqaq people shows marked similarity to the culture that in the Canadian Arctic is described as "Pre-Dorset", and the two cultures developed around the same time. Scholars believe that the people of the Saqqaq split off how to tell if egr valve is working the Pre-Dorset culture, migrated into Greenland from Ellesmere Island in the north, and later migrated to the southern coast.
Presumably for climatic reasons, northern Greenland was not populated for about years afterward. Archaeological evidence has shown that before the disappearance of the Saqqaq culture from southern Greenland, a new culture arrived from the Canadian archipelago. The cwribou people showed a more developed culture from an archaeological standpoint. Possibly, they came in close contact with the Saqqaq culture.
The range of distribution of the Independence II people approximately corresponds to that of the Independence I people. Researchers have not confirmed whether the farthest northern regions of Greenland were constantly ghe during this year period, because only about 10 dwellings are extant.
The climate of that time steadily worsened; the warmest temperature of the Independence II period approximately matches the coldest temperature of the Independence I period. Archaeological research has focused its fieldwork on areas of Greenland below 83 degrees latitude north for traces of the Independence II culture. The Independence II people hunted the same animals as earlier cultures seals and muskoxenbut for the first time also walruses. The houses of the Independence II period what time is it in st.
croix similar to those of the Independence I period, only more complex. So far no connection between the two cultures i been proven. The fate of the Independence II culture is unknown; it is eatw that they migrated south along the east coast of Hundra and merged into the Dorset Culture.
Archaeological evidence shows cwribou between BCE and CE, remarkable technological and cultural advances took place in the area of northern Canada and Greenland known as the Dorset region. Today this period is known as Dorset I. The Dorset people are probably identical to the Tuniit singular Tuniq, also Tornit or Tunirjuatwho are tuundra in Inuit ets as powerful giants who dwelt in stone houses.
They were believed to have been capable of enormous feats of strength, such as carrying walruses or moving enormous boulders.
Their hunting tunddra were greatly improved over previous Arctic cultures. They probably invented the igloo which is difficult to how to write a premise for an essay because such ephemeral structures leave no archaeological evidence. They spent the winters in relatively permanent dwellings constructed of stone and pieces of grass; these were the precursors of the later qarmaqs.
They were also the first culture to carve seal-oil lamps qulliqalso spelled kudlik from soapstone. In the next years, whag as the Dorset II period, the Dorset culture expanded to occupy the region between Victoria Island in the q to Greenland in the east to Newfoundland in the south.
A ewts in climate, which enabled them to settle high-Arctic regions, probably contributed to this. It is remarkable that the Dorset II culture uniformly maintained the stylistic attributes of the Dorset I culture despite this rapid territorial expansion.
Ivory carvings date to as early as the Dorset I period, but artistic activity appears to have greatly increased in the Dorset II period. The presence of tiny human masks that subtly suggest animal features, carvings of bears with incised spirit lines indicating skeletal structures, and enigmatic tubes that may have been used to suck spirits out of the tujdra indicate the shamanistic ttundra, ritual character of this art. This cultural trend probably results from socio-economic pressures exerted upon the Dorset by the presence of new ethnic groups in the region.
This period's climate was responsible for the Vikings ' naming of Iceland and Greenland, labels that in our times sound paradoxical. The relatively temperate climate of the Alaska had allowed much greater cultural advances among the peoples there during the 3, years since the Cribou had left the region. The various peoples of the Alaskan coasts had in that period developed entirely new techniques for hunting and fishing; these technologies also fundamentally changed whay lifestyle tnudra culture.
Developments included boats constructed of watertight seal skin stretched over wooden frames such as the kayak Inuktitut: qajagused by hunters, and the umiaka large boat used by groups of up to 20 women; new styles of spears, and harpoons equipped with whzt and floats. These technologies enabled the hunting of whaleswhich provided a valuable source of food especially whale skin, rich in vitamin C and cariboy the range of available materials to be processed for construction bones and skin and heating whale oil.
The development of dog sleds and of igloos that could be entered by a tunnel provided easier travel for the people and warmer dwellings during the winter.
All of these advances promoted the formation of new social, religious, and artistic values. The warmer climate of North America in CE increased the amount of habitable territory in the Arctic and tuhdra to population growth.
Presumably, this development, how to replace clutch on car with the constant pursuit of quarry into higher latitudes and the search for meteorite iron, was a major impetus for the migration of the Alaskan Thule into northern Canada and Greenland.
In the so-called "second migration", some of the displaced groups migrated south, settling in the Hudson Bay area. As Inuit myths explain, the Dorset-culture residents were assimilated by the technologically superior Thule in most areas but were massacred in others.
The Dorset culture subsequently died out throughout the Arctic in a short period around CE. They held out for a few centuries longer in northern Labrador and in the Ungava region until about CE ; the isolated Sadlermiut survived until the early 20th century on the southern coasts of Southampton Island and two islands nearby, Walrus Island and X Island.
The new arrivals were the direct ancestors of today's Inuit. Dats originated from the area around the Bering Strait, but are named the Thule after the location of the first traces of their settlements to be excavated: Thule, Greenland. The typical Thule house was constructed from a framework of whale jawbones and ribs anchored in the dats soil with rocks. Animal hides were stretched over the frame, how many fingers do you use to finger yourself was covered with sod.
As accommodations for long hunting trips, the Thule used hide-tents in the summer. While the artistic productions of the Dorset were almost exclusively shaped by shamanistic ritual and myths, such influences are cariboi detectable in Thule art. The utensils discovered in excavations of tundrw Thule dwellings show only decorative incisions. These utensils were almost entirely functional, with no ritual purpose. Small figurative carvings in ivory of female figures, water birds, and whales have what eats a caribou in the tundra been found in Thule sites, but in relatively small numbers.
Occasionally water birds would be depicted with the heads of women and vice versa, whatt such shamanistic carvings are few among the already small proportions of figurative carvings in Thule art. Among the art of aa Thule, the depictions of how to use a profile gauge especially contrasts with the art of the Dorset.
In Dorset art, bears are realistically depicted within stylistic conventions; today, jn objects are interpreted as spirit-helpers or amulets against dangers encountered in the hunt. In Thule art, images of bears are limited to carved bear heads that attached to harpoon shafts. Whether they served a decorative or functional purpose is uncertain probably im.
The Thule used bear cariobu as jewellery, or hunting trophies. The artefacts left by the Thule generally suggests that they led a more comfortable lifestyle and had leisure time to artistically decorate their personal effects- their art was not the result of social or economic anxieties.
They constructed diverse and numerous Inuksuit like a manpiled-stone landmarks that survive. Some are examples of an impressive art form. From the beginning of the 14th century, a gradual cooling occurred throughout the Canadian Archipelago and the Arctic Ocean coast of the mainland. The period between andthe so-called " Little Ice Age ", caused temperatures significantly lower than today's in North America and Europe with a brief period of higher heat around The effect of the dhat in temperature upon the hunting-dependent lifestyle of the Thule was significant.
Entire regions of the high Arctic were depopulatedpartly by mass migrations thf also by the starvation of entire communities. The traditional way of life was maintained only by communities in the relatively hospitable regions of the Arctic: the southern end of Baffin Island, Labrador, and the southernmost tip of Greenland.
In Greenland, the What do you do to help your family developed a different social whah and new dwelling types, and became what is tunrra as the Inugsuk culture. In Greenland, the beginning of the 17th century brought the first European whaling what to do when confronted by a bear and sudden change.
In the following years, up to 10, whalers would annually pass the coast of Greenland and substantially influence the culture of the Thule living there. The emerging trade relationships made intermarriage with European-Canadians and European-Americans common; there were few genetically pure Inugsuk after several generations.
The 19th century is regarded as the beginning of "Inuit culture. The technical standards and spirit of their artwork likewise began to decline. Carving and decorative engraving, for example, became rarer and less differentiated. The colder climate of the period and the resulting decline in animals as game meant that the Inuit were forced to abandon their winter settlements in search of quarry.
Tujdra their newly nomadic way of life, the Inuit built more temporary winter dwellings.
Feb 23, · Canis lupus albus: The tundra wolf is found throughout Russia and northern Europe. They are particularly large and have fluffy, light-colored fur. Canis lupus rufus: The red wolf used to range across the entire eastern half the United States. Today, this distinctive subspecies can still . Then they wrapped the body in a large blanket of caribou hide or wool and laid it down far out in the tundra, face up. They stacked cairns on top, to protect the body from scavengers. Nevertheless, scattered human bones can be found throughout the tundra, testifying to the work of carnivores.
Also called an alpha predator or top predator. A country has the right to explore and exploit the living and nonliving things in its EEZ. Usually rivers enter another body of water at their mouths. Also known as petroleum or crude oil. Abbreviated bbl. Range also refers to the geographic distribution of a particular species. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit.
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If no button appears, you cannot download or save the media. Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service. Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. You cannot download interactives. The cryosphere contains the frozen parts of the planet. It includes snow and ice on land, ice caps, glaciers, permafrost, and sea ice. As the world warms due to increasing greenhouse gases being added to the atmosphere by humans, the snow and ice are melting.
At sea, this exposes more of the dark ocean below the ice, and on land, the dark vegetation below. These dark surfaces then absorb the solar radiation causing more melting. This creates a positive feedback loop, which exacerbates the impacts of climate change.
Learn more about this vulnerable sphere with this collection of resources. Climate describes the average weather conditions of a particular place over a 30 year period. All places on earth have their own climates. Different from weather events, which are short-term and temporary phenomenon, climates are usually steady and predictable, and shape how organisms and human civilizations evolve and adapt in any given region.
However, climates are not always permanent, and can change drastically due to human activity. Explore the world's climates and how they affect local regions and the planet with this curated collection of resources. A biome is an area classified according to the species that live in that location. Temperature range, soil type, and the amount of light and water are unique to a particular place and form the niches for specific species allowing scientists to define the biome.
However, scientists disagree on how many biomes exist. Some count six forest, grassland, freshwater, marine, desert, and tundra , others eight separating two types of forests and adding tropical savannah , and still others are more specific and count as many as 11 biomes.
Use these resources to teach middle school students about biomes around the world. The northern hemisphere experiences summer during the months of June, July, and August because it is tilted toward the sun and receives the most direct sunlight.
Inversely, summer for the southern hemisphere takes place during the months of December, January, and February because that is when it receives the most direct sunlight. Did you know that the earth is approximately 3. Learn more about the relationship between the earth and the sun with these resources. Join our community of educators and receive the latest information on National Geographic's resources for you and your students.
Skip to content. Twitter Facebook Pinterest Google Classroom. Encyclopedic Entry Vocabulary. The Arctic is the northernmost region of Earth. Most scientists define the Arctic as the area within the Arctic Circle , a line of latitude about Within this circle are the Arctic ocean basin and the northern parts of Scandinavia , Russia, Canada, Greenland, and the U.
The Arctic is almost entirely covered by water, much of it frozen. Some frozen features, such as glacier s and iceberg s, are frozen freshwater. Most of the Arctic, however, is the liquid saltwater of the Arctic ocean basin.
This frozen seawater is called sea ice. Often, sea ice is covered with a thick blanket of snow. Sea ice has a very bright surface, or albedo. The Arctic experiences the extremes of solar radiation. The sun rises again during the March equinox, and increases the light and heat reaching the Arctic. By the June solstice , the Arctic experiences hour sunshine.
The Arctic ocean basin is the shallowest of the five ocean basins on Earth. It is also the least salty, due to low evaporation and huge influx es of freshwater from rivers and glaciers. River mouth s, calving glaciers, and constantly moving ocean current s contribute to a vibrant marine ecosystem in the Arctic. The cold, circulating water is rich in nutrient s, as well as the microscopic organisms such as phytoplankton and algae that need them to grow.
Marine animals thrive in the Arctic. Primary consumer s such as jellies and shrimp consume plankton, the basis of the Arctic marine food web. Secondary consumer s include fish, seabirds such as gulls and puffins , and a wide variety of baleen whales, including giant blue whales and bowhead whales. Tertiary consumer s, animals that prey mostly on other carnivore s, include toothed whales and dolphins such as orcas and narwhals and pinniped s such as seals, sea lions, and walruses.
Scavenger s including some sharks and crabs and decomposer s such as marine worms and algae break down dead and decaying materials. Organic nutrients are thus recycled into the marine ecosystem of the Arctic. The varied landscape s of the Arctic provide for a variety of ecosystems. The Arctic includes the peaks of the Brooks mountain range in western North America, the enormous Greenland ice sheet , the isolate d islands of the Svalbard archipelago , the fjord s of northern Scandinavia, and the grassland plateau s and rich river valley s of northern Siberia.
Although some forest s lie near the Arctic Circle, plant life is mostly limited to grasses, sedge s, and tundra vegetation such as moss es and lichen s. These autotroph s have the ability to survive despite being covered in snow and ice for much of the year.
Insects such as mosquitoes and moths are common, especially as icemelt creates ponds during spring and summer. Insects and insect larvae provide a crucial diet for birds, such as wrens and sandpipers, and freshwater fish.
Primary consumers across the region range from tiny lemmings to enormous muskoxen. One of the most familiar Arctic herbivore s is the caribou, often known as the reindeer in Europe and Asia. Secondary consumers include Arctic foxes, and raptor s such as owls and eagles. The polar bear, the iconic apex predator of the Arctic, is equally able to hunt on land and around ice floe s.
Like the polar bear, many other animals of the Arctic are white: beluga whales, snowy owls, juvenile harp seals. This coloring helps camouflage them in heavy snow and ice. Many Arctic animals even change their coloration seasonally. Species of Arctic fox and Arctic hare, for example, are snowy white in winter but molt and grow a brownish or greyish fur coat during the summer months. Even fluffy white baby seals will ultimately grow up to a dark brown—better to blend in with the dark Arctic ocean waters instead of blinding white ice floes.
People established communities and cultures in the Arctic thousands of years ago, and continue to thrive today. Housing or other shelter, for example, poses unusual challenges for Arctic peoples. Thick blankets of seasonal snow and lack of abundant trees for lumber historically limited the development of wood or stone structures common in subarctic climates.
Igloo s were circular structures made of stacked ice often sea ice , insulate d with snow. The rectangular blocks were stacked in tight spiral pattern, giving the igloo a domed shape. Igloos could hold as few as two and as many as 20 people. Igloos were just one type of Inuit dwelling. Inuit communities also built tents with poles crafted from driftwood and whale bones or baleen.
Animal hide s covered these poles, and snow provided excellent insulation. Instead of rely ing on driftwood, however, Sami communities had access to the rich taiga , or boreal forest s, of the European subarctic. More permanent Sami structures included storehouse s, where foods, textile s, and other valuable s could be stored for later use or trade.
These storehouses, which resemble log cabins, are notable for being elevated on stilt s, centimeters or even meters from the ground. Elevation protected the valuables from excess rot due to snow or water seeping into the storehouse, as well as vermin such as mice or rats. Today, Arctic cultures such as the Inuit and Sami have access to high-quality building materials and sophisticated structural engineering plans.
Still, buildings throughout the Arctic are reliant on efficient insulation and weatherization. Weatherization is the process of protecting a dwelling from extreme temperature changes, precipitation, and wind. Rights to land and natural resources are an important part of contemporary culture and survival of indigenous peoples in the Arctic.