Battle of Shiloh begins
Nov 09, · The Battle of Shiloh, also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, took place from April 6 to April 7, , and was one of the major early engagements of . Apr 06, · On April 7, , the Civil War ’s Battle of Shiloh ended with a United States (Union) victory over Confederate forces in Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee. The two-day conflict was at that point the bloodiest battle in American history, with more than 23, dead and wounded.
Tennessee was ablaze with bright sunshine, fragrant flowers, and verdant, spring green vegetation. Grant's Union Army of the Tennessee were lolling amid an idyllic setting during the first week in April Wrote one at-ease Illinois volunteer on Saturday, April 5th, "The weather here is almost as hot as August there [in Illinois] and the boys are enjoying themselves hugely, lying in the shade when off duty, barefoot, pant and shirtsleeves rolled up, collars unbuttoned and thrown open, thus presenting the most complete picture of laziness I ever saw.
The timber is getting green as midsummer; the leaves are almost as thick as they will ever be, and wild flowers have gotten to be an old story. Their campground was backwoods farmland, an uneven tableland with timbered ridges and steep ravines, interspersed by plots of cleared pasture and small but mellow orchards of peach and cherry. Across a rough triangular plot of land, about three miles across at the base and bordered by Snake, Owl, and Lick Creeks, five divisions of the Union army, about 40, men, were comfortably if temporarily encamped.
It was to be merely an offensive base, from which the combined Union forces of Grant and the How to get spotify free on mobile of the Ohio - under Major General Don Carlos Buell who was then en route from Nashville would advance upon the enemy rail center at Corinth, Mississippi.
Grant's friend and subordinate, Major General William Tecumseh Sherman was the nominal commander at the Pittsburg Landing camps, since he had originally what causes pressure in the lower abdomen the site on March 16th.
Sherman had moved his division two miles inland the following day to occupy ground near Shiloh Meeting House, a rustic one room, hewn-log church. While Grant remained nine how to check my data usage in reliance netconnect downriver, at Savannah, Tennessee, awaiting Buell's arrival from Nashville, Sherman's men and the army's other divisions busied themselves amid the backwoods tableland, camping, cooking, and drilling.
Despite occasional fire from the pickets in the adjacent woods, and a brief skirmish on April 4th in the outlying timber, the Union army was at ease. Union Brigadier General William H. Wallace of Illinois had ridden out to Sherman's camp on the evening of April 5th and found "everything quiet and the general [Sherman] in fine spirits.
It was a standing joke among the men that it was a Union cardinal who had enlisted in the regiment to sound reveille and retreat. Compared with what was to come, this scene could not have been more ironic or more tragic. Poised at that very moment on the brink of the outer Union camps were about 35, determined Confederates, eager to reverse the tide of war that had resulted in key Yankee victories at Forts Henry and Donelson and led to much lost Southern territory in Kentucky and Tennessee.
The Confederates were led by General Albert Sidney Johnston, the former regular army brigadier who had been Jefferson Davis's choice for top commander in the West. Ironically, Johnston's senior subordinate, General P. Beauregard, had wanted to retreat to Corinth on April 5th, believing the enemy surely had been alerted by the noisy, delayed Confederate march over three days. Instead of being surprised, they would be found "entrenched to their eyes," he said. Beauregard was decidedly wrong.
Firing began about 5 a. Because the Union army was not expecting a battle, especially amid their own camps, many soldiers were still preparing breakfast, or engaged in camp duties when the long roll sounded, urgently calling them to arms. The dire consequences of attempting to fashion an effective defensive line on the outskirts of each division camp when nothing of the sort had been planned or even envisioned, was quickly apparent. The massed ranks of Confederates appeared about 7 a.
By 11 a. A succession of major fields - Fraley, Rea, and Spain - had been lost to the on charging Confederates, and further disaster seemed imminent. Meanwhile, Ulysses S.
Grant, surprised to hear firing upriver from his headquarters at the Cherry mansion in Savannah, had belatedly rushed to the battlefield by steamboat, arriving about 9 a. Yet there was little he could do other than tell his commanders to hold on pending the arrival of reinforcements - Lew Wallace's division from five miles downriver near Crump's Landing, and, hopefully, Buell's advance troops, marching from the vicinity of Savannah.
Clearly, Grant's Union army was in a desperate situation. With the Confederates having routed Prentiss's division from their outer camps along the Bark Road baseline Lick Creek area the way was essentially open for a push straight north to Pittsburg Landing. Yet the victorious Rebels were halted by Johnston's order about a. By chance that morning, Confederate Captain S.
Lockett of Major General Braxton Bragg's staff, had been sent to the far right to scout in that direction. Amazingly, he discovered Colonel David Stuart's Union brigade camp, which was beyond the deployed Confederate right flank.
Fearful that the troops he mistakenly thought were a "division" would swing around and attack Johnston's flank, Captain Lockett sent an urgent message to the Confederate commander warning him of the threat. Yet Stuart's isolated brigade, only about 2, men, were of minimal danger. They had been posted there several weeks earlier merely to guard a bridge over Lick Creek. Alarmed by the sound of adjacent firing, they had formed in line of battle hoping to merely hold their ground.
But because the pre-battle reconnaissance of the Union camps - Beauregard's responsibility - had not been effected, the Confederates had no prior knowledge of Stuart's location or existence. Johnston's plan was to roll back the Union far right flank, and Lockett's new information was deemed critical. Chalmers and John K. Jackson marched on a roundabout route to attack David Stuart's troops which they easily drove backJohnston waited for the 7, man-strong reserve corps under Major General John C.
Breckinridge to come up. The wait entailed more than two hours. Due to this extended delay, the routed Union troops from Prentiss's camps were able to rally and help in forming a major new defensive line in the center thickets, later what does french kiss mean as the Hornets' Nest line. The two previously unengaged Union divisions under Generals How to copy nintendo 3ds games A.
Hurlbut, and William H. Wallace, had how to take links out of a watch without tools forth from their camping ground near Pittsburg Landing, and formed the essence of the critical Hornets' Nest line, connected by Prentiss's re-formed troops along a sunken road in the center. This new central line stretched about a half mile in a curving are, and provided effective cover to drive off the piecemeal-style attacks ordered by Braxton Bragg.
Four separate charges led by Colonel Randall Gibson's brigade were shattered, and the angry Bragg finally witnessed the concentration of 62 artillery pieces gathered by Brigadier General Daniel Ruggles, which bombarded the tenacious Union line.
Due to the heavy enemy resistance in the Hornets' Nest, and the inability of the Confederates to attack prior to the arrival of Breckinridge's reserve corps, it was not until about 2 p.
McArthur were posted just east of the Hamburg-Savannah road across from the peach orchard, and held a series of steep ravines, moderately timbered but with only thin undergrowth due to the grazing of livestock. This region what causes black leaves on tomato plants to prove one of the most important sectors of the battle.
Here Johnston's grand charge conducted by four Confederate brigades succeeded in driving back McArthur following fierce fighting - yet at very heavy cost. About p. Bowen's line east of the road, was struck from behind in the bend of his right leg by a nearly spent minie ball that tore open the popliteal artery. Within about twenty minutes, Johnston collapsed and soon died from a loss of blood, the victim of a stray bullet perhaps fired how to title an autobiography his own men.
Without a senior commander on the field aware of the existing tactical circumstances, the ardor of how to plot postcodes on a map Confederate attacks soon withered. Beauregard, who remained in the distant rear, was later notified that he was the new Confederate commander; he called a halt to the fighting as darkness approached.
Meanwhile, the Hurlbut-Prentiss-W. Wallace troops in the Hornets' Nest were outflanked on opposite sides with the collapse of McArthur's men and the areas protected by Sherman and McClernand. Unable to extricate themselves from the surrounding Confederates, 2, Union prisoners were taken in the collapse of the Hornets' Nest, including Ben Prentiss. General William H. Wallace was fatally shot in attempting to escape, and by 5 p.
Grant was amid the chaotic scene with his last line of defense. Here ponderous siege guns originally intended to pound the Confederates into submission at Corinth were now in makeshift array about the landing and thundering at the Rebels across deep Dill Branch Ravine. Grant suddenly saw the enemy retreating - moving back by Beauregard's order - and he remarked to a staff how to reimburse for mileage expenses, "not beaten yet, by a damn sight.
Also, Lew Wallace's troops, having taken the wrong road, finally arrived about dark, and would serve to bolster the offensive. It occurred much as Grant had envisioned on Monday, April 7th.
Beauregard's troops, who had largely withdrawn to the captured Union camps to rest and refit, were taken by surprise when Union columns, spearheaded by Buell's and Lew Wallace's men, assaulted them that morning. After fierce back-and-forth fighting over ground already much bloodied on April 6th, at 3 p. Beauregard ordered a retreat back to Corinth. After 5 p. The Pearl Harbor of the Civil War was over, and with it came the realization that the war would go on until one cause or the other was completely overcome.
There could be no turning back now; the gruesome commitment to the war had been written in blood. Shiloh had cost the lives of 3, Americans amid a total of 23, casualties.
More thanmen had fought at Shiloh, and the carnage amounted to the greatest devastation known on the American continent to that date. The Battle of Shiloh had set a new, bloody standard for the world to contemplate.
Today the green but what happened in the battle of shiloh ground that endures for future generations to walk and study ensures that the sacrifices made by so many will forever be remembered. Wiley Sword is a retired businessman and an author, historian and collector. He is an expert on Civil War weaponry. Civil War Article. The Battle of Shiloh. Surprise in Tennessee. Duncan Field at the Shiloh Battlefield. Some of the most severe fighting at the Battle of Shiloh occurred at this position.
Robert Shenk. Wiley Sword. An inept battlefield commander, William T. Sherman won lasting fame for his scorched earth strategies in Mississippi, Georgia, and the Carolinas.
Library of Congress. Ulysses S. Grant Library of Congress. Related Articles. View All Related Resources. Related Battles. Estimated Casualties.
Battle Of Shiloh Facts
Mar 30, · Battle of Shiloh, also called Battle of Pittsburg Landing, (April 6–7, ), second great engagement of the American Civil War, fought in southwestern Tennessee, resulting in a victory for the North and in large casualties for both sides. In February, Union General Ulysses S. Grant had taken Fort Henry on the Tennessee River and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland. Apr 14, · Battle of Shiloh By mid-February , United States forces had won decisive victories in the West at Mill Springs, Kentucky, and Forts Henry and Donelson in Tennessee. These successes opened the way for invasion up the Tennessee River to sever Confederate rail communications along the important Memphis & Charleston and Mobile & Ohio railroads. Shiloh had cost the lives of 3, Americans amid a total of 23, casualties. More than , men had fought at Shiloh, and the carnage amounted to the greatest devastation known on the American continent to that date. The Battle of Shiloh had set a new, bloody standard for the world to contemplate.
Beauregard second-in-command launched a surprise attack on Grant's army from its base in Corinth, Mississippi. Johnston was mortally wounded during the fighting; Beauregard took command of the army and decided against pressing the attack late in the evening. Overnight, Grant was reinforced by one of his divisions stationed farther north and was joined by three divisions from the Army of the Ohio Maj.
Don Carlos Buell. The Union forces began an unexpected counterattack the next morning which reversed the Confederate gains of the previous day. On April 6, the first day of the battle, the Confederates struck with the intention of driving the Union defenders away from the river and into the swamps of Owl Creek to the west. Johnston hoped to defeat Grant's army before the anticipated arrival of Buell and the Army of the Ohio.
The Confederate battle lines became confused during the fighting, and Grant's men instead fell back to the northeast, in the direction of Pittsburg Landing. A Union position on a slightly sunken road, nicknamed the "Hornet's Nest" and defended by the divisions of Brig. Benjamin Prentiss and William H. Wallace , provided time for the remainder of the Union line to stabilize under the protection of numerous artillery batteries.
Wallace was mortally wounded when the position collapsed, while several regiments from the two divisions were eventually surrounded and surrendered. Johnston was shot in the leg and bled to death while leading an attack. Beauregard acknowledged how tired the army was from the day's exertions and decided against assaulting the final Union position that night. Tired but unfought and well-organized men from Buell's army and a division of Grant's army arrived in the evening of April 6 and helped turn the tide the next morning, when the Union commanders launched a counterattack along the entire line.
Confederate forces were forced to retreat, ending their hopes of blocking the Union advance into northern Mississippi. Though victorious, the Union army had suffered heavier casualties than the Confederates, and Grant was heavily criticized in the media for being taken by surprise. The Battle of Shiloh was the bloodiest engagement of the Civil War up to that point, with nearly twice as many casualties as the previous major battles of the war combined.
After the beginning of the American Civil War, the Confederacy sought to defend the Mississippi River valley , the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers , the Louisville and Nashville Railroad , and the Cumberland Gap , all of which provided invasion routes into the center of the Confederacy. The neutral state of Kentucky initially provided a buffer for the Confederacy in the region as it controlled the territory Union troops would have to pass through in an advance along these routes but in September General Leonidas Polk occupied Columbus, Kentucky , prompting the state to join the Union.
With numerical superiority, the Union could concentrate troops to break through the Confederate line at a single point and bypass Columbus. Major General Henry Halleck was given command of the Union forces in the Mississippi Valley and in late decided to focus on the Tennessee River as the major axis of advance.
Grant 's army captured Forts Henry and Donelson in February, with Grant's insistence on the unconditional surrender of their garrisons elevating him to national hero status. The fall of the twin forts opened the Tennessee and Cumberland as invasion routes and allowed for the outflanking of the Confederate forces in the west. Johnston established his base at Corinth, Mississippi , the site of a major railroad junction and strategic transportation link between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mississippi River, but left the Union troops with access into southern Tennessee and points farther south via the Tennessee River.
In early March, Halleck, then commander of the Department of the Missouri, ordered Grant to remain at Fort Henry, and on March 4 turned field command of the expedition over to a subordinate, Brig. Smith , who had recently been nominated as a major general.
William Tecumseh Sherman 's troops arrived from Paducah, Kentucky , to conduct a similar mission to break the railroads near Eastport, Mississippi. Grant left Fort Henry and headed upriver south , arriving at Savannah, Tennessee , on March 14, and established his headquarters on the east bank of the river. Grant's troops set up camp farther upriver: five divisions at Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, and a sixth at Crump's Landing, four miles from Grant's headquarters.
Meanwhile, Halleck's command was enlarged through consolidation of Grant's and Buell's armies and renamed the Department of the Mississippi. Halleck intended to take the field in person and lead both armies in an advance south to seize Corinth, Mississippi, where the Mobile and Ohio Railroad linking Mobile, Alabama , to the Ohio River intersected the Memphis and Charleston Railroad. Ulysses S. Grant 's Army of the Tennessee of 44,   men consisted of six divisions:.
Of the six divisions encamped on the western side of the Tennessee River in early April, only Lew Wallace's 3rd Division was at Crump's Landing; the remainder were farther south upriver at Pittsburg Landing. Grant developed a reputation during the war for being more concerned with his own plans than with those of the enemy. However, major crossings into the encampment were guarded and patrols frequently dispatched. In his memoirs, Grant justified his lack of entrenchments by recounting that he did not consider them necessary, believing "drill and discipline were worth more to our men than fortifications.
In addition, Wallace's troops could strike the railroad line connecting Bethel Station to Corinth, about 20 miles 32 km to the south. The portion of Maj. Don Carlos Buell 's Army of the Ohio that was engaged in the battle consisted of four divisions:.
On April 5, the eve of battle, the first of Buell's divisions, under the command of Brig. William "Bull" Nelson , reached Savannah. Grant instructed Nelson to encamp there instead of immediately crossing the river.
The remainder of Buell's army, still marching toward Savannah with only portions of four of his divisions, totaling 17, men,  did not reach the area in time to have a significant role in the battle until its second day. Buell's three other divisions were led by Brig. Alexander M. McCook , Thomas L. Crittenden , and Thomas J.
Wood's division appeared too late even to be of much service on the second day. On the Confederate side, Albert S. Johnston named his newly assembled force the Army of Mississippi.
Of these men, 40,   departed from Corinth on April 3, hoping to surprise Grant before Buell arrived to join forces. They were organized into four large corps, commanded by:.
On the eve of battle, Grant's and Johnston's armies were of comparable size, but the Confederates were poorly armed with antique weapons, including shotguns, hunting rifles, pistols, flintlock muskets, and even a few pikes ; however, some regiments had recently received Enfield rifles.
Grant's army included 32 out of 62 infantry regiments who had had combat experience at Fort Donelson. One half of his artillery batteries and most of his cavalry were also combat veterans. Beauregard . Johnston's plan was to attack Grant's left, separate the Union army from its gunboat support and avenue of retreat on the Tennessee River, and drive it west into the swamps of Snake and Owl Creeks, where it could be destroyed. The attack on Grant was originally planned for April 4, but it was delayed for 48 hours due to a heavy rain storm that turned roads into seas of mud, causing some units to get lost in the woods and others to grind to a halt faced with heavy traffic jams.
It ended up taking Johnston 3 days to move his army just 23 miles. Instead, it would happen on the 6th with Buell's army close at hand and able to reinforce Grant on the second day. Furthermore, the delay left the Confederate Army desperately short of rations.
They had issued their troops 5 days of rations just before leaving Corinth, but failure to properly conserve their food intake and the two-day delay left most troops completely out of rations by the time the battle commenced. During the Confederate march, there were several minor skirmishes with Union scouts and both sides had taken prisoners.
Positioned only a few miles from the Union Army, the rebel soldiers routinely played their bugles, pounded their drums, and even discharged their muskets hunting for game. Beauregard , feared that the element of surprise had been lost and recommended withdrawing to Corinth, believing that by the time the battle commenced, they would be facing an enemy "entrenched up to the eyes". But Johnston once more refused to consider retreat.
Johnston made the decision to attack, stating "I would fight them if they were a million. Before 6 a. The army had spent the entire night making a camp in order of battle within 2 miles 3. Grant wanted to avoid provoking any major battles until the linkup with Buell's Army of the Ohio was complete.
Thus the Union army had sent out no scouts or regular patrols and did not have any vedettes in place for early warning, concerned that scouts and patrols might provoke a major battle before the Army of the Ohio finished crossing the river. Sherman, the informal camp commander at Pittsburg Landing, did not believe the Confederates had a major assault force nearby; he discounted the possibility of an attack from the south.
Sherman expected that Johnston would eventually attack from the direction of Purdy, Tennessee , to the west. When Col. Jesse Appler of the 53rd Ohio Infantry warned Sherman that an attack was imminent, the general angrily replied, "Take your damned regiment back to Ohio.
There are no Confederates closer than Corinth. Around 3 a. Everett Peabody , commanding Brig. Benjamin Prentiss's 1st Brigade, sent a patrol of infantry men from the 25th Missouri and the 12th Michigan out on reconnaissance patrol, convinced that the constant reports of Confederate contacts over the last few days meant there was a strong possibility of a large Confederate force in the area. The patrol, under the command of Maj. James E. Powell, met fire from Confederates who then fled into the woods.
A short time later, a. Arriving messengers and sounds of gunfire from the skirmish alerted the nearest Union troops, who formed battle line positions before the Confederates were able to reach them;  however, the Union army command had not adequately prepared for an attack on their camps. Union forces at Pittsburg Landing were either engaged or moving toward the front line.
The confusing alignment of the Confederate army helped reduce the effectiveness of the attack, since Johnston and Beauregard had no unified battle plan. Earlier, Johnston had telegraphed Confederate President Jefferson Davis his plan for the attack: "Polk the left, Bragg the center, Hardee the right, Breckinridge in reserve. Johnston instructed Beauregard to stay in the rear and direct men and supplies as needed, while he rode to the front to lead the men on the battle line.
This effectively ceded control of the battle to Beauregard, who had a different concept, which was simply to attack in three waves and push the Union army eastward to the river. Recognizing the disorganization, the Confederate corps commanders divided responsibility for sectors of the line among themselves as the first attack progressed, but this made division commanders redundant in most cases and in some cases placed them over subordinates who they had not personally met before.
At about a. The attack therefore went forward as a frontal assault conducted by a single linear formation, which lacked both the depth and weight needed for success. Command and control, in the modern sense, were lost from the onset of the first assault.
The Confederate assault, despite its shortcomings, was ferocious, causing some of the numerous inexperienced Union soldiers in Grant's new army to flee to the river for safety.
Others fought well, but were forced to withdraw under strong pressure from the Confederates, and attempted to form new defensive lines. Many Union regiments fragmented entirely; the companies and sections that remained on the field attached themselves to other commands.
Sherman, who had been negligent in preparing for an attack, became one of its most important elements.