Potassium Iodide (KI)
Potassium Iodide is a metal halide composed of potassium and iodide with thyroid protecting and expectorant properties. Potassium iodide can block absorption of radioactive iodine by the thyroid gland through flooding the thyroid with non-radioactive iodine and preventing intake of radioactive molecules, thereby protecting the thyroid from cancer causing radiation. Mar 15, · Potassium Iodide Chemical Formula Potassium iodide is made of ions such as K + I and behaves like an ionic salt. As they are ionically bonded together, potassium has an oxidation number of +1 and iodide is Since there is a tendency to gain or lose electrons to .
KI potassium iodide is a salt of stable not radioactive iodine that can help block radioactive iodine from being absorbed by the thyroid gland, thus protecting this gland from radiation injury. People should take KI potassium iodide only on the advice of public health or fo management officials. There are health risks associated with taking KI. KI potassium iodide does not keep radioactive iodine from entering the body and cannot reverse the health effects caused by radioactive iodine once the thyroid is damaged.
KI potassium iodide cannot protect the body from radioactive elements other than radioactive iodine—if radioactive iodine is not present, taking KI is not protective and could cause harm.
Table salt and foods rich in iodine do not contain enough iodine to block radioactive iodine from getting into your thyroid gland. Do not use table salt formulz food as potassiumm substitute for KI. Do not use dietary supplements that contain iodine in the place of KI potassium iodide. They can be harmful and non-efficacious. Only use products that have been approved by the U.
The thyroid gland cannot tell the difference between stable and radioactive iodine. It will absorb both. KI potassium iodide blocks radioactive iodine from entering the thyroid. When a person takes KI, the stable iodine in the medicine gets absorbed by the thyroid.
Protection will increase depending on three factors. The thyroid glands of a fetus and of an infant are most at risk of injury from radioactive iodine. Young children and people with low amounts of iodine in their thyroid what is employment pass in singapore also at risk of thyroid injury.
Infants have the highest risk of getting thyroid cancer after being exposed to radioactive iodine. All infants, including breast-fed infants need to be given the dosage of KI potassium iodide recommended for infants. The U. Food and Drug Administration FDA recommends that all children internally contaminated with or likely to be internally contaminated with radioactive thhe take KI potassium iodideunless they have pogassium allergies to iodine contraindications.
The FDA recommends that young adults between the ages of 18 and 40 years internally contaminated with or likely to be internally contaminated with radioactive iodine take the recommended dose of KI potassium iodide.
Young adults are less sensitive to the effects of radioactive iodine than are children. Because potassiuj forms of iodine cross the placenta, pregnant women should take KI potassium iodide to protect the growing fetus.
Pregnant women should take only one dose of KI following internal contamination with or likely internal contamination with radioactive iodine. Women who are breastfeeding should take only one dose of KI potassium iodide if they have been internally contaminated with or are likely to be internally contaminated with radioactive iodine. They should be prioritized to rormula other protective what animal eats pine trees measures.
Adults older than 40 years should not take KI potassium iodide unless public health or emergency management officials say that contamination with a very large dose of radioactive iodine is expected. The FDA has approved two different forms of KI whzt iodidetablets and liquid, that people can foe by mouth after a radiation emergency involving radioactive iodine.
Tablets come in two strengths, milligram mg and 65 mg. The tablets have lines on them so that they may be cut into smaller pieces for lower doses. What is the chemical formula for potassium iodide to the FDA, the following doses are appropriate to take after internal contamination with how to add paypal shopping cart to wordpress likely how to read measuring tape for body contamination with radioactive fof.
Taking a stronger dose of KI potassium iodideor taking KI more often than recommended, does not offer more protection and can cause severe illness or death. A single dose of KI potassium iodide protects the thyroid gland cormula 24 hours. A one-time dose at recommended levels is usually all that is needed to protect the thyroid gland.
In some cases, people can be exposed to radioactive iodine for more than 24 hours. If that happens, public health or emergency how to do satin stitch officials may tell you to take one dose of KI potassium iodide every 24 hours for a chemiical days.
Avoid repeat dosing with KI potassium iodide for pregnant and breastfeeding women and newborn infants. Side effects of KI potassium iodide may include stomach or gastro-intestinal upset, allergic reactions, rashes, potxssium inflammation of the salivary glands.
When taken as recommended, KI potassium iodide can cause rare adverse health effects related iodid the thyroid gland. Newborn infants less than 1 month old who receive more than one dose of KI potassium iodide are at risk for developing a condition known as hypothyroidism thyroid hormone levels that are too potaseium.
If not treated, hypothyroidism can cause cuemical damage. KI potassium iodide is available without a prescription. People should only take KI potassium iodide on the advice of public health or emergency management officials. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Radiation Emergencies. Potassuum Navigation. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate.
Potassium Iodide KI. Minus Related Pages. What is Potassium Iodide KI? How does KI potassium iodide work? Who can take KI potassium iodide? How is KI potassium iodide given? How formulq should I take KI potassium iodide? What are the side effects of KI potassium iodide? Where can I get KI potassium iodide? To chemifal email updates about this page, enter your email address: Email Address.
Jan 30, · Potassium Iodide Chemical Formula Potassium Iodide is a metal halide composed of potassium and iodine. (potassium and iodine formulae are K? and I? respectively. The bond between them is ionic. Potassium has an oxidation number of +1 and iodide has an oxidation number of -1, So, the formula for potassium iodide is KI. Potassium iodide is an inorganic chemical compound which is denoted by the chemical formula KI. Potassium iodide is a metal-halide salt featuring an ionic bond between the potassium cation (K+) and the iodide anion (I–). It is colourless to white, it appears as cubical crystals, or powder or white granules. It has a highly bitter, saline taste. Potassium iodide (KI) is a white, odorless solid that is typically used in its powder form, as shown in the image below. It's added to table salt as an important source of dietary iodine, and it.
Potassium iodide is a chemical compound , medication , and dietary supplement. Common side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, rash, and swelling of the salivary glands. Potassium iodide has been used medically since at least Potassium iodide is used as a nutritional supplement in animal feeds and also in the human diet. For the latter, it is the most common additive used to "iodize" table salt a public health measure to prevent iodine deficiency in populations that get little seafood.
The oxidation of iodide causes slow loss of iodine content from iodised salts that are exposed to excess air. The alkali metal iodide salt, over time and exposure to excess oxygen and carbon dioxide, slowly oxidizes to metal carbonate and elemental iodine, which then evaporates. Dextrose or sodium thiosulfate are often added to iodized table salt to stabilize potassium iodide thus reducing loss of the volatile chemical.
Thyroid iodine uptake blockade with potassium iodide is used in nuclear medicine scintigraphy and therapy with some radioiodinated compounds that are not targeted to the thyroid, such as iobenguane MIBG , which is used to image or treat neural tissue tumors, or iodinated fibrinogen , which is used in fibrinogen scans to investigate clotting. These compounds contain iodine, but not in the iodide form.
However, since they may be ultimately metabolized or break down to radioactive iodide, it is common to administer non-radioactive potassium iodide to ensure that iodide from these radiopharmaceuticals is not sequestered by the normal affinity of the thyroid for iodide. Food and Drug Administration -approved dosing of potassium iodide for this purpose with iobenguane, is as follows per 24 hours : infants less than 1 month old, 16 mg; children 1 month to 3 years, 32 mg; children 3 years to 18 years, 65 mg; adults mg.
Not all sources are in agreement on the necessary duration of thyroid blockade, although agreement appears to have been reached about the necessity of blockade for both scintigraphic and therapeutic applications of iobenguane. Commercially available iobenguane is labeled with iodine , and product labeling recommends administration of potassium iodide 1 hour prior to administration of the radiopharmaceutical for all age groups,  while the European Association of Nuclear Medicine recommends for iobenguane labeled with either isotope , that potassium iodide administration begin one day prior to radiopharmaceutical administration, and continue until the day following the injection, with the exception of new-borns, who do not require potassium iodide doses following radiopharmaceutical injection.
Product labeling for diagnostic iodine iobenguane recommends potassium iodide administration one day before injection and continuing 5 to 7 days following administration, in keeping with the much longer half-life of this isotope and its greater danger to the thyroid. In , the U. Food and Drug Administration approved potassium iodide to protect thyroid glands from radioactive iodine involving accidents or fission emergencies.
Of these products, I Iodine is one of the most common and is particularly dangerous to the thyroid gland because it may lead to thyroid cancer. According to one study "KI administered up to 48 h before I exposure can almost completely block thyroid uptake and therefore greatly reduce the thyroid absorbed dose.
However, KI administration 96 h or more before I exposure has no significant protective effect. In contrast, KI administration after exposure to radioiodine induces a smaller and rapidly decreasing blockade effect. Emergency milligrams potassium iodide doses provide mg iodide the other 30 mg is the potassium in the compound , which is roughly times larger than the normal nutritional need see recommended dietary allowance for iodine, which is micrograms 0.
A typical tablet weighs mg, with mg of potassium iodide and 30 mg of excipients , such as binding agents. Potassium iodide cannot protect against any other mechanisms of radiation poisoning , nor can it provide any degree of protection against dirty bombs that produce radionuclides other than those of iodine.
The potassium iodide in iodized salt is insufficient for this use. The World Health Organization does not recommend KI prophylaxis for adults over 40 years, unless the radiation dose from inhaled radioiodine is expected to threaten thyroid function, because the KI side effects increase with age and may exceed the KI protective effects; " Such radiation doses will not occur far away from an accident site. The U. Department of Health and Human Services restated these two years later as "The downward KI potassium iodide dose adjustment by age group, based on body size considerations, adheres to the principle of minimum effective dose.
The recommended standard daily dose of KI for all school-age children is the same 65 mg. However, adolescents approaching adult size i. Neonates ideally should receive the lowest dose 16 mg of KI.
SSKI i. This is not the same as blocking the thyroid's release of thyroid hormone, for which the adult dose is different and is actually higher by a factor of 7 or 8 [ citation needed ] , and for which KI anti-radiation pills not a common medical treatment form of KI are not usually available in pharmacies, or normally used in hospitals, or by physicians. For protection of the thyroid against radioiodine iodine contamination, the convenient standard mg KI pill is used, if available.
It can also cause sialadenitis an inflammation of the salivary gland , gastrointestinal disturbances, and rashes. Potassium iodide is also not recommended for people with dermatitis herpetiformis and hypocomplementemic vasculitis — conditions that are linked to a risk of iodine sensitivity. There have been some reports of potassium iodide treatment causing swelling of the parotid gland one of the three glands that secrete saliva , due to its stimulatory effects on saliva production.
The anti-radioiodine doses used for I uptake blockade are lower, and range downward from mg a day for an adult, to less than this for children see table. At maximal doses, and sometimes at much lower doses, side effects of iodide used for medical reasons, in doses of times the normal nutritional need, may include: acne, loss of appetite, or upset stomach especially during the first several days, as the body adjusts to the medication.
More severe side effects that require notification of a physician are: fever, weakness, unusual tiredness, swelling in the neck or throat, mouth sores, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, stomach pains, irregular heartbeat, numbness or tingling of the hands or feet, or a metallic taste in the mouth.
The use of a particular 'Iodine tablet' used in portable water purification has also been determined as somewhat effective at reducing radioiodine uptake.
In the event of a radioiodine release the ingestion of prophylaxis potassium iodide, if available, or even iodate, would rightly take precedence over perchlorate administration, and would be the first line of defence in protecting the population from a radioiodine release.
However, in the event of a radioiodine release too massive and widespread to be controlled by the limited stock of iodide and iodate prophylaxis drugs, then the addition of perchlorate ions to the water supply, or distribution of perchlorate tablets would serve as a cheap, efficacious, second line of defense against carcinogenic radioiodine bioaccumulation.
The ingestion of goitrogen drugs is, much like potassium iodide also not without its dangers, such as hypothyroidism. In all these cases however, despite the risks, the prophylaxis benefits of intervention with iodide, iodate or perchlorate outweigh the serious cancer risk from radioiodine bioaccumulation in regions where radioiodine has sufficiently contaminated the environment.
Potassium iodide in its raw form is a mild irritant and should be handled with gloves. Chronic overexposure can have adverse effects on the thyroid. Potassium iodide is a possible teratogen. KI is used with silver nitrate to make silver iodide AgI , an important chemical in film photography.
KI is a component in some disinfectants and hair treatment chemicals. KI is also used as a fluorescence quenching agent in biomedical research, an application that takes advantage of collisional quenching of fluorescent substances by the iodide ion.
Potassium iodide is a component in the electrolyte of dye sensitised solar cells DSSC along with iodine. Potassium iodide finds its most important applications in organic synthesis mainly in the preparation of aryl iodides in the Sandmeyer reaction , starting from aryl amines. Aryl iodides are in turn used to attach aryl groups to other organics by nucleophilic substitution, with iodide ion as the leaving group.
It crystallises in the sodium chloride structure. It is produced industrially by treating KOH with iodine. It is a white salt , which is the most commercially significant iodide compound, with approximately 37, tons produced in It absorbs water less readily than sodium iodide , making it easier to work with.
Aged and impure samples are yellow because of the slow oxidation of the salt to potassium carbonate and elemental iodine. This reaction is employed in the isolation of iodine from natural sources. Air will oxidize iodide, as evidenced by the observation of a purple extract when aged samples of KI are rinsed with dichloromethane.
As formed under acidic conditions, hydriodic acid HI is a stronger reducing agent. Through this reaction, iodine is used in redox titrations. Aqueous KI 3 , " Lugol's solution ", is used as a disinfectant and as an etchant for gold surfaces. Potassium iodide and silver nitrate are used to make silver I iodide , which is used for high speed photographic film and for cloud-seeding:.
KI serves as a source of iodide in organic synthesis. A useful application is in the preparation of aryl iodides from arenediazonium salts. KI, acting as a source of iodide, may also act as a nucleophilic catalyst for the alkylation of alkyl chlorides , bromides , or mesylates. Potassium iodide's KI value as a radiation protective thyroid blocking agent was demonstrated following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster in April, , a saturated solution of potassium iodide SSKI was administered to Reports differ concerning whether people in the areas immediately surrounding Chernobyl itself were given the supplement.
The use of KI With the passage of time, people living in irradiated areas where KI was not available have developed thyroid cancer at epidemic levels, which is why the US Food and Drug Administration FDA reported "The data clearly demonstrate the risks of thyroid radiation KI can be used [to] provide safe and effective protection against thyroid cancer caused by irradiation. Chernobyl also demonstrated that the need to protect the thyroid from radiation was greater than expected.
Within ten years of the accident, it became clear that thyroid damage caused by released radioactive iodine was virtually the only adverse health effect that could be measured.
As reported by the NRC, studies after the accident showed that "As of , except for thyroid cancer, there has been no confirmed increase in the rates of other cancers, including leukemia, among the But equally important to the question of KI is the fact that radioactivity releases are not "local" events. Researchers at the World Health Organization accurately located and counted the cancer victims from Chernobyl and were startled to find that "the increase in incidence [of thyroid cancer] has been documented up to km from the accident site Over 11, cases have already been reported.
These findings were consistent with studies of the effects of previous radioactivity releases. In , millions of Japanese were exposed to radiation from nuclear weapons, and the effects can still be measured. Today, nearly half The development of thyroid cancer among residents in the North Pacific from radioactive fallout following the United States' nuclear weapons testing in the s on islands nearly miles downwind of the tests were instrumental in the decision by the FDA to issue a request for the availability of KI for thyroid protection in the event of a release from a commercial nuclear power plant or weapons-related nuclear incident.
Noting that KI's effectiveness was "virtually complete" and finding that iodine in the form of KI was substantially superior to other forms including iodate KIO 3 in terms of safety, effectiveness, lack of side effects, and speed of onset, the FDA invited manufacturers to submit applications to produce and market KI.
It was reported on March 16, , that potassium iodide tablets were given preventively to U. Naval air crew members flying within 70 nautical miles of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant damaged in the earthquake 8. The measures were seen as precautions, and the Pentagon said no U. By March 20, the US Navy instructed personnel coming within miles of the reactor to take the pills. In the Netherlands, the central storage of iodine-pills is located in Zoetermeer , near The Hague.
In , the Dutch government distributed pills to hundreds of thousands of residents who lived within a certain distance of nuclear power plants and met some other criteria. As of , potassium iodide tablets are made available free of charge for all residents in all pharmacies throughout the country.
Three companies Anbex, Inc. In , Fleming Co. ThyroShield is currently not in production. The Swedish manufacturing facility for Thyrosafe, a half-strength potassium iodide tablet for thyroid protection from radiation, was mentioned on the secret US Critical Foreign Dependencies Initiative leaked by Wikileaks in Tablets of potassium iodide are supplied for emergency purposes related to blockade of radioiodine uptake, a common form of radiation poisoning due to environmental contamination by the short-lived fission product I.
For reasons noted above, therapeutic drops of SSKI, or mg tablets of KI as used for nuclear fission accidents, are not used as nutritional supplements, since an SSKI drop or nuclear-emergency tablet provides to times more iodine than the daily adult nutritional requirement.
Dedicated nutritional iodide tablets containing 0.